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#hashing is an algorithm that calculates a fixed-size bit string value from a file. A file basically contains blocks of data. Hashing transforms this data into a far shorter fixed-length value or key which represents the original string. The hash value can be considered the distilled summary of everything within that file. A good hashing #algorithm would exhibit a property called the avalanche effect, where the resulting hash output would change significantly or entirely even when a single bit or byte of data within a file is changed. A hash function that does not do this is considered to have poor randomization, which would be easy to break by hackers. A hash is usually a hexadecimal string of several characters. Hashing is also a unidirectional process so you can never work backwards to get back the original data. #types Of Hashing: MD5 - Used as a checksum to verify data integrity. SHA 2 - A cryptographic hash function. CRC32 - cyclic redundancy check is an error-detecting code often used for detection of accidental changes to data. Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #hash #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Applications frequently fail to encrypt network traffic when it is necessary to protect sensitive communications. Encryption (usually TLS) must be used for all authenticated connections, especially Internet-accessible web pages. Backend connections should be encrypted as well. Otherwise, the application will expose an authentication or session token to malicious actors on the same network as the application host. These backend connections may represent a lower likelihood of exploitation than a connection over the external internet; however, in the case of exploitation they can result in compromise of user accounts or worse. | Encryption should be used whenever sensitive data, such as credit card or health information, is transmitted. Applications that fall back to plaintext or are otherwise forced out of an encrypting mode can be abused by attackers. | •How To Find? >Is SSL is used to protect all traffic related authentication? >On all private pages and services is SSL is used for all resources? >Is the ‘secure’ flag set on session cookies? >Are legitimate server certificates in use and configured properly? >Are certificates issued from an authorized source? >Are server certificates in use expired? | •Prevention :- >Implementing SSL for the entire site. >Setting the ‘secure’ flag on for sensitive cookies. >Insuring that a server certificate is valid, is not expired, is not revoked, and that it correctly matches all domains for which it is used. >And certifying that backend and other connections also use SSL or other encryption mechanisms. | Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

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The application makes use of untrusted data in conjunction with the creation and or use of an interpreter. #Untrusted #data is retrieved from the attacker and utilized as an argument to a dangerous interpreter access method. Failure to properly validate or encode data utilized by an interpreter increases the risk of injection attacks. Such injection typically results in the attacker's ability to execute arbitrary code in the context of the #program consuming the interpreter results. The nature of a Injection Attack is that the attacker tricks the application into running some code statements that are not part of the intended functions of that application. This means there has to be some mechanism to parse and execute the malicious code contained in the attacker's payload before the owner of the application can stop it. In theory, an application could compile code and run it automatically, but it's much more common for this type of attack to use malicious code that is not compiled, but is interpreted at runtime. ¶Your other examples, XML, XPath, HTTP, are not typically associated with code injection. •XML is not code, it's a data format. •HTTP is not code, it's a protocol. •XPath is sort of like code, but a very specialized type of code. It's an expression language to identify elements in an XML document. It's limited in what it can do, so it's not a common vector for code injection attacks. #solution Define and enforce a strict set of criteria defining what the application will accept as valid input, and contextually encode all untrusted data passed to the interpreter prior to execution. Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Insufficient randomness results when software generates predictable values when unpredictability is required. When a security mechanism relies on random, unpredictable values to restrict access to a sensitive resource, such as an initialization vector (IV), a seed for generating a cryptographic key, or a session ID, then use of insufficiently random numbers may allow an attacker to access the resource by guessing the value. There are various steps in cryptography that call for the use of random numbers. Generating a nonce, initialization vector or cryptographic keying materials all require a random number. The strength of a cryptographic system depends heavily on the properties of these CSPRNGs. Depending on how the generated pseudo-random data is applied, a CSPRNG might need to exhibit some (or all) of these properties: •It appears random •Its value is unpredictable in advance •It cannot be reliably reproduced after generation. The potential consequences of using insufficiently random numbers are data theft or modification, account or system compromise, and loss of accountability – i.e., non-repudation. #solution When using random numbers in a security context, use cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generators (CSPRNG). Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #bug #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #crypto #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

This application is not utilizing an access control strategy for one or more components. Failure to utilize access control can lead to exposure of sensitive functionality to unintended users. Malicious users seek out this type of functionality to cause harm to users of the application, or the application itself. In Websphere, if you enable servlets by class name, then this is performing the same act as Android in that it allows you to invoke by the class. If the following snippet exists or the variable is not declared, this allows you to invoke servlets without any permissions: enable-serving-servlets-by-class-name value="true" Utilize an access control strategy for all components of the application where sensitive functionality may reside. Prevent servlets from serving by classname by adding the following line: enable-serving-servlets-by-class-name value="false" Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Source code Disclosure : Source code intended to be kept server-side can sometimes end up being disclosed to users. Such code may contain sensitive information such as database passwords and secret keys, which may help malicious users formulate attacks against the application. A server vulnerability can be exploited to read arbitrary files. This vulnerability can be used to reveal the source code of application files as well as display configuration files. Source code disclosure exposes sensitive application information such as input validation filters, database connection strings and queries, or hard-coded passwords. An attacker with information about input validation filters may be able to craft a specific request that would bypass the filter. Information about database connection strings exposes the user name and password used to access the database. Information about how database queries are constructed can help attackers create SQL injection exploits that pull specific information from the database. Hard-coded passwords within configuration files or application source code may enable an attacker to access portions of the application that are otherwise restricted. Remediation: Source code disclosure Server-side source code is normally disclosed to clients as a result of typographical errors in scripts or because of misconfiguration, such as failing to grant executable permissions to a script or directory. Review the cause of the code disclosure and prevent it from happening. Credits : @_anishkashukla_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

#insecure Deserialization is a vulnerability which occurs when untrusted data is used to abuse the logic of an application, inflict a denial of service (DoS) attack, or even execute arbitrary code upon it being deserialized. Object and data structure related attacks where the attacker modifies application logic or achieves arbitrary remote code execution if there are classes available to the application that can change behavior during or after deserialization. Typical data tampering attacks, such as access-control-related attacks, where existing data structures are used but the content is changed. Serialization may be used in applications for: -Remote- and inter-process communication (RPC/IPC) -Wire protocols, web services, message brokers -Caching/Persistence -Databases, cache servers, file systems -HTTP cookies, HTML form parameters, API authentication tokens The only safe architectural pattern is not to accept serialized objects from untrusted sources or to use serialization mediums that only permit primitive data types. If that is not possible, consider one of more of the following: #Implementing integrity checks such as digital signatures on any serialized objects to prevent hostile object creation or data tampering. #Enforcing strict type constraints during deserialization before object creation as the code typically expects a definable set of classes. Bypasses to this technique have been demonstrated, so reliance solely on this is not advisable. #isolating and running code that deserializes in low privilege environments when possible. #logging deserialization exceptions and failures, such as where the incoming type is not the expected type, or the deserialization throws exceptions. #restricting or monitoring incoming and outgoing network connectivity from containers or servers that deserialize. #monitoring deserialization, alerting if a user deserializes constantly. Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersafety #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

THIS PODCAST IS BEING PRESENTED IN FRONT OF YOU WITH A HOPE OF ENHANCING THE DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT BY EXPANDING THE SCOPE OF SECURITY. IN THIS PODCAST, WE'LL TALK ON VARIOUS TOPICS SUCH AS WHO WE ARE, WHY SECARMY PODCAST, WHY CYBERSECURITY IS IT NECESSARY AND WHAT YOU CAN DO WITH IT. IT'S JUST A START, JOIN IN FOR EXCITING AND INTIMIDATINGLY GREAT CONTENT. Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #Podcast #youtubelive #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Mirai is malware that infects smart devices that run on ARC processors, turning them into a network of remotely controlled bots or zombies. This network of bots, called a botnet, is often used to launch DDoS attacks. Malware, short for malicious software, is an umbrella term that includes computer worms, viruses, Trojan horses, rootkits and spyware. Credits : @kishorkumar3854 Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Missing/insufficient SPF record When a domain lacks an SPF policy, an attacker is able to send spoofed emails that look like they’re originating from the vulnerable domain. What can happen? Spoofing can be used to trick people into giving up sensitive information and spreading false information that may damage the reputation of the vulnerable part. Employing an SPF policy could result in some legitimate emails being rejected if they are automatically forwarded by old mail servers that haven’t yet implemented mitigations for this. If this is a considered a greater problem than spoofed emails, a very strict SPF policy may not be the best solution. However, this is so rare that we still recommend the use of SPF, but it still needs to taken into consideration. Remediation The first step is to compile the appropriate SPF policy and to do that, you need to read the document about the syntax of SPF which can be found here: http://www.openspf.org/SPF_Record_Syntax If you use one of the most common email service providers, you can just use one of the SPF policies listed below: Outlook: v=spf1 include:spf.protection.outlook.com -all Zoho: v=spf1 mx include:zoho.com -all AOL: v=spf1 ptr:mx.aol.com -all Inbox: v=spf1 ip4:33.34.35.0/24 include:inbox.com -all CounterMail: v=spf1 mx -all Hushmail: v=spf1 ip4:65.39.178.0/24 a mx -all Google: v=spf1 include:_spf.google.com -all To fully implement your SPF policy, there is only one step left, adding it to the DNS record for the domain. Credits : @_anishkashukla_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Cross-site Scripting (XSS) is a client-side code injection attack. The attacker aims to execute malicious scripts in a web browser of the victim by including malicious code in a legitimate web page or web application. The actual attack occurs when the victim visits the web page or web application that executes the malicious code. The web page or web application becomes a vehicle to deliver the malicious script to the user’s browser. Vulnerable vehicles that are commonly used for Cross-site Scripting attacks are forums, message boards, and web pages that allow comments. A web page or web application is vulnerable to XSS if it uses unsanitized user input in the output that it generates. This user input must then be parsed by the victim’s browser. XSS attacks are possible in VBScript, ActiveX, Flash, and even CSS. However, they are most common in JavaScript, primarily because JavaScript is fundamental to most browsing experiences. How to Check It’s easy to test if your website or web application is vulnerable to XSS and other vulnerabilities by running an automated web scan using the Acunetix vulnerability scanner, which includes a specialized XSS scanner module. Manually you can put this in front of any URL <script>alert(document.cookie)</script> If it popups then the site is Vulnerable Prevention 1.To keep yourself safe from XSS, you must sanitize your input. Your application code should never output data received as input directly to the browser without checking it for malicious code. 2.If your page doesn’t allow users to add their own code to the page, a good rule of thumb is to then escape any and all HTML, URL, and JavaScript entities. However, if your web page does allow users to add rich text, such as on forums or post comments, you have a few choices. 3.Validating input is the process of ensuring an application is rendering the correct data and preventing malicious data from doing harm to the site, database, and users. While whitelisting and input validation are more commonly associated with SQL injection, they can also be used as an additional method of prevention for XSS. Credits : @yashpatil_

If an attacker can create/upload a malicious Flash (SWF) file or control the top part of any page he can perform an attack known as Cross domain data hijacking. The Content-Type of the response doesn&#039;t matter. If the file is embedded using an tag, it will be executed as a Flash file as long as the content of the file looks like a valid Flash file. Here is the attack scenario: •An attacker creates a malicious Flash (SWF) file •The attacker changes the file extension to JPG •The attacker uploads the file to victim.com •The attacker embeds the file on attacker.com using an tag with type "application/x-shockwave-flash" •The victim visits attacker.com, loads the file as embedded with the tag. •The attacker can now send and receive arbitrary requests to victim.com using the victims session •The attacker sends a request to victim.com and extracts the CSRF token from the response. There are many ways to perform this attack. The attacker doesn&#039;t need to upload a file. The only requirement is that an attacker can control the data on a location of the target domain. One way is to abuse a JSONP API. Usually, the attacker can control the output of a JSONP API endpoint by changing the callback parameter. However, if an attacker uses an entire Flash file as callback, we can use it just like we would use an uploaded file in this attack. Remediation:- For file uploads: It is recommended to check the file&#039;s content to have the correct header and format. If possible, use "Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=Filename.Extension;" header for the files that do not need to be served in the web browser. Isolating the domain of the uploaded files is also a good solution as long as the crossdomain.xml file of the main website does not include the isolated domain. For other cases: For JSONP abuses or other cases when the attacker control the top part of the page, you need to perform proper input filtering to protect against this type of issues. Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #wearesecarmy #cyberhunter

The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is used to store information about users, hosts, and many other objects. LDAP injection is a server side attack, which could allow sensitive information about users and hosts represented in an LDAP structure to be disclosed, modified, or inserted. This is done by manipulating input parameters afterwards passed to internal search, add, and modify functions. LDAP Injection is an attack used to exploit web based applications that construct LDAP statements based on user input. When an application fails to properly sanitize user input, it’s possible to modify LDAP statements through techniques similar to SQL Injection. If the variable $userName is not validated, it could be possible to accomplish LDAP injection, as follows: If a user puts “*” on box search, the system may return all the usernames on the LDAP base. If a user puts “akash) (| (password = * ) )”, it will generate the code below revealing yash’s password ( cn = yash ) ( | (password = * ) ). ...... . Prevention: Input Validation : All user-end input must be sanitized. It should be free of suspicious characters and strings that can be malicious.There are OWASP Api present which can help in defense to these vulnerability like: esapi-java C # AntiXSS functions including Encoder.LdapFilterEncode(string), Encoder.LdapDistinguishedNameEncode(string) and Encoder.LdapDistinguishedNameEncode(string, bool, bool). --------------------------------------- Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Insecure Cryptographic Storage isn’t a single vulnerability, but a collection of vulnerabilities that compromise data storage. Usually, this collection involves encryption of very sensitive data. Known causes are incorrect encryption of data, improper key storage and management, using known bad algorithms or using your own insecure cryptography. While most modern cryptographic algorithms are extremely resilient, most attackers will go after how you are using the cryptography, not the actual cryptography itself. Improper usage like 1 No Encryption. 2 Use of Weak Hashes or Unsalted Hash. 3 Insecure way Key Management. 4 Storage unnecessary but, confidential data on your database. •Risks:- Usually information that has been encrypted is to protect very sensitive data such as; personal identifiable information, trade secrets, healthcare records, financial data and credit card numbers. Most attackers have a motive and will go after how you are using the cryptography, not the actual cryptography itself, thus exploiting sensitive data. Once compromised, loss of such delicate information will be costly to your business, your reputation and possibly face legal fines. Prevention : First, we identify and locate flaws in any key stroke management and/or possible inputting of incorrect encryption codes. We will determine whether you are using insecure algorithms designed by you or a known outside source. In doing so, we will also run a security scan to target these issues and provide a detailed report with active solutions and recommendations to help protect your business and your clients in all ways. Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

1. Hackers, penetration testers, and other security experts need a language library that provides the entire spectrum of features to create powerful and often novel programs. Python comes with modules to support Web activities such as parsing HTTP and XML and building clients. 2. Python’s simple and clean structure, modular design, and extensive library make it ideal for security applications. Cyber experts rely on the capability to rapidly code programs and the feature set to implement new strategies and techniques. No other language offers as powerful a combination, and Python stands as the must-know language for the serious security professional. ENROLL FOR PYTHON TRAINING TODAY! LINK IN BIO. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy #python #pythonprogramming #coding #scripting #development #developer

Six hackers have officially crossed the $1 million bug bounty earnings threshold, HackerOne confirmed today. Back in March, the San Francisco-based vulnerability disclosure platform announced that Santiago Lopez, a 19-year-old security researcher from Argentina, had become the world’s first hacker to earn $1 million through bug bounties. Now, the UK’s Mark Litchfield, Nathaniel Wakelam from Australia, Frans Rosen from Sweden, Ron Chan from Hong Kong, and Tommy DeVoss from the US have joined the $1 million hacker ranks. The six bug bounty millionaires came together with HackerOne and 100 fellow hackers in Las Vegas earlier this month for the H1-702 live hacking event. Over the three days of hacking, more than 100 security researchers earned $1.9 million for finding over 1,000 security flaws. According to HackerOne, government and federal bug bounty programs had the strongest year-over-year industry growth, at 214%, followed by automotive (113%), telecommunications (91%), consumer goods (64%), and blockchain-based platforms (64%). So Why You Are Waiting Join Our Bug Bounty Course and Start Earning Millions. Check link in Our Bio Link 🔗: http://bit.ly/secarmy-tr-3 Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

A new technique to extract private information from servers protected by Windows Defender has been developed by the TokyoWesterns team. The method, which was published online after the Capture the Flag (CTF) competition at the WCTF 2019 conference, is a specialized server-side request forgery (SSRF) technique that takes advantage of the security mechanisms embedded in Windows Defender, the default antivirus tool for Microsoft. SSRF attacks involve specially crafted requests packets that trick servers into obtaining and returning information that the attacker would not have been able to access. Hackers usually use SSRF attacks to reach resources such as files and other resources that are only accessible to the local networks of the targeted server. In their CTF example, the researchers attacked a target web application running on a Windows server protected by Windows Defender. The application had some publicly available URLs, meant to be accessed by everyone, and one URL that was only accessible to the ‘localhost’ address (the server itself). This latter URL contained sensitive information. In order to get the web application to reveal information from the ‘localhost’ address, the researchers crafted a special JavaScript snippet and embedded it in the query string of one of the public facing URLs. This causes Windows Defender’s defensive modules on the server to intervene and analyze the code for potential harmful commands, the researchers found. More importantly, the antivirus analysis of the embedded script only affected the server’s response to the client. This meant that the attackers were able to cause Defender to leak information about the secret data the application was storing by carefully manipulating their script. Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Insufficient authentication occurs when an application permits an attacker to access sensitive content or functionality without having to properly authenticate; for instance, accessing admin controls by going to the /admin directory without having to log in. • For many web applications, administrative functionality is located directly off the root directory (/admin/). This directory is typically not linked from anywhere on the website, but can still be accessed using a standard web browser. Users and developers often fail to enforce authentication, never expecting anyone to view this page because of the fact it’s not linked. With this oversight, attackers simply need to visit this page to obtain complete administrative access to the website for their malicious activities. • The impact of insufficient authentication vulnerabilities is usually that attackers that don&#039;t have legitimate application accounts will be able to perform operations that only legitimate users should be able to perform. In an extreme case, insufficient authentication might allow attackers to change user passwords and then take over their accounts. A more common example is that an attacker might be able to access or download content, such as music, without creating an account. Countermeasures Force Reauthentication for Sensitive Operations Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Researchers have demonstrated a serious weakness in the Bluetooth wireless standard that could allow hackers to intercept keystrokes, address books, and other sensitive data sent from billions of devices. KNOB doesn&#039;t require an attacker to have any previously shared secret material or to observe the pairing process of the targeted devices. The exploit is invisible to Bluetooth apps and the operating systems they run on, making the attack almost impossible to detect without highly specialized equipment. The attack forces two or more devices to choose an encryption key just a single byte in length before establishing a Bluetooth connection. Attackers within radio range can then use commodity hardware to quickly crack the key. From there, attackers can use the cracked key to decrypt data passing between the devices. Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #knobattack #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Attackers can leverage the additional information they gain from debugging output to mount attacks targeted on the framework, database, or other resources used by the application. ASP .NET applications can be configured to produce debug binaries. These binaries give detailed debugging messages and should not be used in production environments. The debug attribute of the <compilation> tag defines whether compiled binaries should include debugging information. The use of debug binaries causes an application to provide as much information about itself as possible to the user. Debug binaries are meant to be used in a development or testing environment and can pose a security risk if they are deployed to production. Attackers may leverage the additional information they gain from debugging output to mount attacks targeted on the framework, database, or other resources used by the application. Prevention Avoid releasing debug binaries into the production environment. Change the debug mode to false when the application is deployed into production. Put Following Code in Web.config file <compilation debug="false" /> Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy #vulnerability #learntocode

If you&#039;ve noticed an uptick of spam that addresses you by name or quotes real emails you&#039;ve sent or received in the past, you can probably blame Emotet Criminals are sending emails with infected attachments (typically, a Word document). We advise not to open the documents in emails from suspicious sources. However, these emails often mimic known sources. The rule of thumb is that in case of doubt one should call the sender to verify the email is a genuine one. Once “Emotet” is installed, it may download ransomware on the affected machine. Advise against paying a ransom because this will only strengthen the criminal infrastructure and thereby allow criminals to blackmail other victims. In addition, there is no guarantee that the key for decryption will be provided. Recommended : You Immediately disconnect the computer from all networks. It is essential that the system should be reinstalled following this and that all passwords should be changed. After cleaning the computer, the back-up data (if available) can then be restored. If no data backup is available, it is advisable to retain the encrypted data and to save it so that it could possibly be decrypted at some later date in case a solution is found. Do : Use Antivirus, Anti Malware, Dont open any Untrusted Emails/Spams , Use Strong Passwords.Stay Safe Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersafe #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Insecure data storage vulnerabilities occur when development teams assume that users or malware will not have access to a mobile device&#039;s filesystem and subsequent sensitive information in data-stores on the device. Filesystems are easily accessible. In the event that attacker physically attains the mobile device, hooks up the mobile device to a computer with freely available software. These tools allow the attacker to see all third party application directories that often contain stored personally identifiable information (PII) or other sensitive information assets. An attacker may construct malware or modify a legitimate app to steal such information assets. Risk: Identity Theft Fraud Reputation Damage External Policy Violation (PCI) Material Loss. Preventions: 1.Never store credentials on the phone file system 2.SD Card Storage some security can be achieved via the ‘javax.crypto’ library Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

There’s a new player in the exploit kit landscape. Dubbed Lord, this new exploit kit was initially seen delivering the njRAT malware (detected by Trend Micro as Backdoor.MSIL.BLADABINDI.IND) before distributing the Eris ransomware NjRAT is a known information stealer and backdoor whose capabilities are constantly reworked or updated, given how it’s readily shared in the cybercriminal underground. The Eris ransomware, meanwhile, was first seen in May being distributed through a malvertising campaign that employed the Rig exploit kit. Lord first checks if the affected system has Adobe Flash Player. If the machine has the software installed, Lord will attempt to use an exploit (Trojan.SWF.CVE201815982.AE) that takes advantage of CVE-2018-15982, a vulnerability in Adobe Flash, to deliver its payload. The vulnerability, patched in December 2018, is also exploited by the Spelevo and Greenflash Sundown exploit kits, the latter of which was recently used by the ShadowGate campaign to spread cryptocurrency-mining malware. As noted in a Trend Micro research on threat hunting via social media, the same vulnerability was involved in an attack that targeted a healthcare organization in Russia. Recommended Keep systems regularly patched and updated, or employ virtual patching to secure legacy or out-of-support systems that still use Flash-based content. Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

A new HTML element available in a developer version of Chrome has put seamless usability ahead of security considerations, a researcher has found. The security risks lie with <portal> – an HTML element to embed content from different domains in Chrome Canary, the experimental version of Chrome that’s aimed at developers. An attacker would also be able to read local files on a target’s machine due to the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) schemes implemented by the <portal> element. Browser security rules dictate that websites cannot redirect to users to the file scheme from another scheme, such as http, for example, because this would allow local files to be read. “When doing my first tests, it turned out that the same restriction doesn’t apply to <portal> and I could open any page I wanted, including file: or even chrome: schemes,” Bentkowski said in his research. “However, when you realize that you can also assign javascript: scheme to the URL (as you do in bookmarklets), this changes drastically!” The researcher reported the issue to Google on May 13, and the problem was fixed less than two weeks later. He was awarded a $10,000 bug bounty for his findings. Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

The COW programming language was designed with the bovine in mind. Given that cows have somewhat limited vocabulary skills, it seemed natural to incorporate only the words they know into the language. As a result, all instructions are some variation on "moo" which just so happens to be the only word they really understand. Any other word or symbol that isn&#039;t an instruction is ignored entirely. So, spaces can be used or not. Newlines can be used or not. You get the idea. It makes commenting COW programs rather easy as long as you don&#039;t use any words that have an instruction embedded in it. All instructions are case-sensitive. Each Cow Command Has its own Meaning. Commands Follows : 0- moo 1- mOo 2- moO 3- mOO 4- Moo 5- MOo 6- MoO 7- MOO 8- OOO 9- MMM 10- OOM 11- oom Happy Moo-ing Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

SECARMY looking to hire services of InfoSec Certified Trainers as per their availability . Trainers required for modules like ...... The trainer should be mandatory certified . If the trainer has conducted academic trainings it is added advantage . If you are interested to be associated with us please DM or Email us your Resume to Mail : secarmyofficial@gmail.com ..... for further discussion and details . #wearesecarmy Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

IronWASP (Iron Web Application Advanced Security Testing Platform) If you’re going to perform ethical hacking, IronWASP is another great tool. It’s free, open source and multi-platform, perfect for those who need to audit their web servers and public applications. One of the most appealing things about IronWASP is that you don’t need to be an expert to manage its main features. It’s all GUI-based, and full scans can be performed in only a few clicks. So, if you’re just getting started with ethical hacking tools, this is a great way to start. Some of its main features include: Powerful but Simple GUI-based interface Web scan sequence recording Exports results into HTML and RTF file format 25+ different web vulnerabilities False positive and negative management Full Python and Ruby support for its scripting engine Can be extended by using modules written in C #, Ruby, and Python Supported platforms: Windows, Linux with Wine, and MacOS using CrossOver. http://ironwasp.org/download.html Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity

OSSEC HIDS performs log analysis, integrity checking, rootkit detection, time-based alerting and active response. In addition to its IDS functionality, it is commonly used as a SEM/SIM solution. Because of its powerful log analysis engine, ISPs, universities and data centers are running OSSEC HIDS to monitor and analyze their firewalls, IDSs, web servers and authentication logs. Credits : @kishorkumar3854 Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

The cyber kill chain is a series of steps that trace stages of a cyberattack from the early reconnaissance stages to the exfiltration of data. The kill chain helps us understand and combat ransomware, security breaches, and advanced persistent attacks (APTs). Lockheed Martin derived the kill chain framework from a military model – originally established to identify, prepare to attack, engage, and destroy the target. Since its inception, the kill chain has evolved to better anticipate and recognize insider threats, social engineering, advanced ransomware and innovative attacks. Credits : @kishorkumar3854 Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

A newly developed utility uses machine learning to help ascertain whether or not target websites have a security vulnerability, using nothing more than screenshots. The tool, dubbed ‘Eyeballer’, is designed to help pen testers and bug bounty hunters quickly identify which websites are “interesting” (and which ones aren’t) when looking at a large-scale external perimeter. Eyeballer, which was designed by security researcher Dan Petro and Gavin Stroy of Bishop Fox, doesn’t actually “hack into” anything. But how accurate are the results from this tool in practice? The researchers report that their latest models are hitting a benchmark of around 92% overall accuracy on an evaluation dataset. Petro explained what this meant in practice: “If we look at 100 images, Eyeballer will label 92 correctly. When we measure accuracy, we use a set of evaluation data exclusively created for this purpose. [One in five] 20% of our screenshots are held back and not used in training. It takes into account several parameters, including ‘Is the site old-looking?’, ‘Does it have login functionality?’, ‘Is this the homepage of the app?’, and ‘Is this a custom 404 page?’ “Eyeballer is designed to be a practical pen testing tool that we as security professionals would actually use in the real world, as opposed to a cool tech demo or curiosity of purely academic interest,” Stroy told The Daily Swig. “Naturally, we shot for a very approachable problem as opposed to trying to make an ‘all-in-one’ hacking Cylon.” Go ahead and use your favorite screenshotting tool like normal (EyeWitness or GoWitness) and then run them through Eyeballer to tell you what&#039;s likely to contain vulnerabilities, and what isn&#039;t. https://github.com/bishopfox/eyeballer Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

•How the Cyber Kill Chain Works There are several core stages in the cyber kill chain. They range from reconnaissance (often the first stage in a malware attack) to lateral movement (moving laterally throughout the network to get access to more data) to data exfiltration (getting the data out). All of your common attack vectors – whether phishing or brute force or the latest strain of malware – trigger activity on the cyber kill chain. Cyber kill chain phases Each stage is related to a certain type of activity in a cyber attack, regardless of whether it’s an internal or external attack: Reconnaissance The observation stage: attackers typically assess the situation from the outside-in, in order to identify both targets and tactics for the attack. Intrusion Based on what the attackers discovered in the reconnaissance phase, they’re able to get into your systems: often leveraging malware or security vulnerabilities. Exploitation The act of exploiting vulnerabilities, and delivering malicious code onto the system, in order to get a better foothold. Privilege Escalation Attackers often need more privileges on a system to get access to more data and permissions: for this, they need to escalate their privileges often to an Admin. Lateral Movement Once they’re in the system, attackers can move laterally to other systems and accounts in order to gain more leverage: whether that’s higher permissions, more data, or greater access to systems. Obfuscation / Anti-forensics In order to successfully pull off a cyberattack, attackers need to cover their tracks, and in this stage they often lay false trails, compromise data, and clear logs to confuse and/or slow down any forensics team. Denial of Service Disruption of normal access for users and systems, in order to stop the attack from being monitored, tracked, or blocked •The extraction stage: getting data out of the compromised system. Credits : @kishorkumar3854 #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

According to Motherboard, security researchers have already exploited the vulnerability in iOS 12.4 and released a public “jailbreak” on open-sourced software development platform Github As a result of the mistake, all iPhones running iOS 12.4 can now be jailbroken and several iPhone users have already tweeted that they are successfully running the “jailbreak” Jailbreaking an iPhone lets people customize their iOS devices and run unsupported apps. Apple never allows unsupported apps on its iOS platform, which makes its devices extra secure. Credits : @_smile_hacker_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

All of the seven Layers are most important to transmit the data or connect to a network Last four Layers Are also called end-to-end Layers So without Wasting our time Let&#039;s Get Started with the very first one Layer Which is Physical Layer. We all know that Computer Can understand only Binary bits and here The PHYSICAL LAYER is responsible for sending the data bits For one computer to another. So we see that this is the responsibility of PHYSICAL LAYER now we will see the functionality of this Layer means What kind of functionality is provided by this Layer. 1.Single Encoding 2.Medium 3.bits Synchronization 4.Transmission type 5.Transmission mode 6.Topology 7.Multiplexing 8.Interface 9.Bandwidth 10.Signal Type We will Discuss about this functionality in very Deep in next post See you Soon. To Be Continued . Credits : @_smile_hacker_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

A window protocol could be a feature of packet-based information transmission protocols. window protocols square measure used wherever reliable in-order delivery of packets is needed, like within the data link layer(OSI layer 2) still as within the Transmission control Protocol (TCP). Conceptually, every portion of the transmission is appointed a novel consecutive sequence variety, and therefore the receiver uses the numbers to put received packets within the correct order, discarding duplicate packets and distinguishing missing ones. By putting limits on the quantity of packets which will be transmitted or received at any given time, a window protocol permits a vast variety of packets to be communicated victimization fixed-size sequence numbers. The term "window" on the transmitter facet represents the logical boundary of the entire variety of packets . The receiver informs the transmitter in every ack packet this most receiver buffer size (window boundary). The TCP header uses a sixteen field to report the receiver window size to the sender. Therefore, the biggest window which will be used is 216 = sixty four kilobytes. In slow-start mode, the transmitter starts with low packet count and will increase the quantity of packets in every transmission when receiving ACK packets from receiver. For each ACK packet received, the window slides by one packet (logically) to transmit one new packet. once the window threshold is reached, the transmitter sends one packet for one ack packet received. If the window limit is ten packets then in slow begin mode the transmitter might begin transmittal one packet followed by 2 packets , followed by 3 packets so on till ten packets. however when reaching ten packets, any transmissions square measure restricted to 1 packet transmitted for one ACK packet received. During a simulation this seems as if the window is moving by one packet distance for each ACK packet received. On the receiver facet additionally the window moves one packet for each packet received. _____________________________________

In previous post We talked about PHYSICAL LAYER And at the end we see there are 10 Functionality of this Layer so Let&#039;s Give a Liik on it in Deep. 1.Signal Encoding :- It Means that How are the Binary Bits will be represented ? Means which Modulation technique will be used to transmit the data .So generally There aree main Four Modulation techniques which are ASK(Amplitude Shift Keying),FSK(Frequency Shift Keying),PSK(Phase Shift Keying) and QAM(Quadrate Amplitude Modulation) We will see these modulation techniques in next Post 2.Medium :- It will define that which transmission Medium will be used and What is the priority of the mediums. 3.Bits Synchronization :-It will also check the synchronization method meanns it checks that which synchronization techniques will be used there are main Two tupes Of synchronization techniques which are synchronous transmission and asynchronous transmission we will see these techniques in details 4.Transmission type :- It will check that which transmission type will be Used means Serial transmission or parrallel transmission 5.Transmission mode :- It will check that which transmission mode will be Used modes are Simplex , half Duplex and Full Duplex 6.Topology :-It will check that which network Topology Used there are several types of topologies which we will discuss later 7.Multiplexing :- It will check tha if the transmission is using multiplexing technique or not if yes then Which Multiplexing technique 8.Interface :- It will check that how the two linked devices are closely connected with hardware or software generally its connected with NIC(Network Interface Card 9.Bandwidth :-Which communication will be used either baseband or broadband 10.Signal Type :-It checks that Which signal will be use either analog or digital I Hope you enjoyed it and its easy to understand we will see every functionality in Details in very next post Thank You for Your Time. Credits : @_smile_hacker_

FIRE SALE IS A TERM DESCRIBING A THREE-STAGE CORDINATED ATTACK ON A COUNTRY&#039;S TRANSPORTATION,TELCOMMUNICATION,FINANCIAL,AND UTILITIES INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS. THE TERM FIRESALE IS USED BECAUSE "EVERYTHING IS DOWN". Is that Really Happen?? Yes, but not nearly as easy as the movie would like you to think. It would take a combined effort of top notch programers/hackers etc... and some help on the inside. The "Fire Sale" scenario has been around for a long time as a "What if". The actual chance of it happing is slim, however if the country continues in it&#039;s downward spiral we could face a New Age Revolution via Tech Wars. Credits : @kishorkumar3854 Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Sougaijam discovered that during a voice call on the instant messaging platform, the bug allowed the receiver to upgrade it to a video call without the knowledge of the individual making the voice call. You can Also find These kind of bugs from Different kind of Applications. Want to Know How?? Join our Bug Bounty Course and Start Earning.. Registeration Starts on 10 August 2019 Credits : @yashpatil_ Join @sec_army for Daily Hacktivity & Knowledge Dose. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy

Whenever the topics of digital forensics, cyber security and penetration testing are discussed, professionals generally depend on a number of third party tools and operating systems. Kali Linux, MetaSploit, Parrot Security OS and many other tools are used for digital forensics. Python is a widely used programming language for cyber security, penetration testing and digital forensic applications. Using the base programming of Python, following can be performed without using any other third party tool (using python): • Web server fingerprinting • Simulation of attacks • Port scanning • Website cloning • Load generation and testing of a website • Creating intrusion detection and prevention systems • Wireless network scanning • Transmission of traffic in the network • Accessing mail servers… and many other implementations related to digital fingerprinting and security applications. . . . Start by Walking on the Path of Python. . . . ENROLL IN THE PYTHON COURSE NOW! LINK IN BIO. #cybersecurityawareness #cybersecuritytraining #ethicalhacking #hacking #hackingtools #learnhacking #kalilinux #kalilinuxtools #cyberhunter #cyberattack #cybersecurity #cyberarmy #instacybersecurity #wearesecarmy #python #pythonprogramming #programming #codinglife #coder #coding #scripting